# Investment Basics: Understanding Your Gains and Losses

When you’re reviewing your investments, it’s important to remember that income and returns come from two main sources: capital gains and interim income.

### Capital gain (or loss)

This is the difference in the overall value of your investment between when you purchased it and now (or the date that you sold it). You can work it out as:

((Current or sale price per unit − purchase price) X  number of units) − fees and taxes

For example, let’s assume you purchased 100 shares of Amazing Purple Widget Co. for \$50 each and then sold them for \$80 each. You had to pay \$10 to buy, \$10 to sell, and 15% tax on the profit. This would work out to:

((\$80 – \$50)  X  100) − \$20 − \$450 = \$2,430 or a return of 48.6% on your original \$5,000 investment.

### Interim income (dividends, interest, etc.)

This is the amount you’ve received in interim payments over the life of your investment. It’s calculated as:

(Interim %  X  value of investment) − taxes (15%)

You would need to work this out for each interim payment that you receive.

For example, let’s assume you’ve held 100 Amazing Purple Widget Co. shares for three years, and that they paid dividends of 3% a year. In the first year, the shares were \$50 each; in the second, \$60 each; and in the third, \$80 each. Your return would be 3% of \$5,000, \$6,000, and \$8,000, less tax. This works out to \$485.